Institute of Semiconductor Engineering

Courses

Which courses do we offer?

General information about teaching at the IHT

  • Organizational information on the courses can be found on C@MPUS,
  • Learning materials and records are available in ILIAS,
  • The official module manuals can be found under Bologna for students.

Overview of the courses of the IHT

Classification in the curriculum

The lectures Mikroelektronik I (ME I) will be read by Prof. Ingmar Kallfass from the Institute of Robust Power Semiconductor Systems (ILH) and Mikroelektronik II (ME II) will be read by Prof. Jörg Schulze and provide the basics for all further lectures at the IHT. 

Recommended requirements

None.

Contents

The following contents will be discussed:

  1. The history of semiconductor devices
  2. Silicon - material of microelectronics
  3. Charge carriers and currents in semiconductors
  4. Recombination and generation of charge carriers
  5. Electrostatics of the pn-junction
  6. Currents at pn-junction
  7. Characteristic curve and properties of pn diodes
  8. Introduction to transistor technology
  9. The Bohr atomic model and the relationship between crystal structure and electrical conductivity
  10. Load carriers in metals - Ohm's law
  11. Schottky contact
  12. Structure and function of a bipolar transistor
  13. Introduction to bipolar transistor circuits
  14. MOS electrode and the electrical behaviour of a MOS electrode
  15. MOSFET and CMOS logic
  16. Introduction to MOSFET circuits
  17. MOSFET-based memory (SRAM and DRAM)
  18. Power transistors (IGBT, IGT, Power-MOSFET)

Learning Goals

The students have the knowledge and understanding of the semiconductor fundamentals, as well as the knowledge of important device types and their physics. They have knowledge of the basics of semiconductor technology required to produce semiconductor devices.

General Conditions

Credit Points (LP) 9
Semester hours per week (SWS) 4   (exercise 2, lecture 2)
Cycle Winter semester ME I / Summer semester ME II
Language German
Estimation of workload Attendance time· 84 hours
Private study· 186 hours
Sum · 270 hours
Contact
 

Classification in the curriculum

The lecture Semiconductor Technology: Bipolar Technology (HL I) forms together with the lectures

  • Semiconductor Engineering: Nano CMOS era (HL II),
  • Semiconductor Engineering: Power Devices (HL III) and
  • Semiconductor Engineering: Intelligent Sensors and Actuators (HL IV) 

the semiconductor engineering cycle of the IHT. The lecture is offered every second semester, always in the winter semester.

Recommended requirements

It is recommended that you have some knowledge of microelectronics (ME) and semiconductor technology: process technology (HLT I).

Contents

The following contents will be discussed:

  1. Description of a psn transition in thermodynamic equilibrium (space charge zones, Poisson equation, depletion approximation and built-in voltage),
  2. Description of a non-equilibrium psn transition (I-U characterization of the ideal pn transition, recombination mechanisms in pn transitions, I-U characterization of the real pn transition, breakthrough mechanisms in pn transitions),
  3. Diode special shapes: Schottky diode and ohmic contact, Z diodes (Zener diode and Avalanche diode), IMPATT diode (Impact Ionization Avalanche Transit Time diode), Gunn diode, Uni tunnel diode, Esaki tunnel diode, Shockley diode, DIAC (Diode for Alternating Current),
  4. Structure and function of bipolar and heterobiplar transistors: Ideal and real behaviour and high-frequency operation,
  5. Thyristor and light ignited thyristor, TRIAC (Triode for Alternating Current).

At the end of the lecture, power bipolar transistors with isolated gates such as the gate turn-off thyristor (GTO thyristor) and the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) and BiCMOS circuits will be discussed as an outlook.

Learning Goals

The students have the knowledge and understanding of the mathematical-physical basics of device modeling, know the ideal and the real functionality and the structure of various semiconductor diodes and have a comprehensive understanding of the structure and the ideal/real behavior of a bipolar and a heterobipolar transistor. In addition, they are familiar with the basic operation of thyristors and have basic knowledge of the operation of isolated gate power bipolar transistors and BiCMOS circuits (BiCMOS: circuit technology combining bipolar and field effect transistors). They are also familiar with the basic manufacturing processes of modern bipolar and BiCMOS processes.

General Conditions

Credit Points (LP) 6
Semester hours per week (SWS) 4   (exercise 2, lecture2)
Cycle Winter semester
Language German
Estimation of workload Attendance time· 45 hours
Private study· 135 hours
Sum· 180 hours
Contact
 

Classification in the curriculum

The lecture Semiconductor Engineering: Nano-CMOS-era (HL II) together with the lectures forms

  • Semiconductor Engineering: Bipolar Technology (HL I)
  • Semiconductor Engineering: Power Devices (HL III) and
  • Semiconductor Engineering: Intelligent Sensors and Actuators (HL IV) 

the semiconductor engineering cycle of the IHT. The lecture is offered every second semester, always in the summer semester.

Recommended requirements

It is recommended to have knowledge of microelectronics (ME), semiconductor engineering: bipolar technology (HL I) and semiconductor technology: process technology (HLT I).

Contents

The following contents will be discussed:

  1. Ideal and real behaviour of a long channel MOSFET,
  2. Moore's Law and ITRS Roadmap,
  3. Scaling of a MOSFET and short channel effects: From long channel to short channel MOSFET,
  4. Strategies to minimize short channel effects,
  5. Modern CMOS processes,
  6. MOS-based memory: DRAM (trench concepts and stacked capacitor concepts) and SRAM,
  7. MOS-based power semiconductor devices: Lateral power MOSFET, DMOS, IGBT and gate turn-off thyristors.

Learning Goals

The students have the knowledge and understanding of the structure and behavior of an ideal and a real long-channel MOSFET (MOSFET: Metal-Oxid-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor) and have a comprehensive understanding of the so-called short-channel effects in short-channel MOSFETs and in nano-MOSFETs. In addition, they are familiar with technological strategies for minimizing short channel effects and the principal manufacturing processes of modern CMOS processes (CMOS: Complementary MOS). In a further step, the students have the knowledge and understanding of the ITRS concept of the semiconductor industry (ITRS: International Technology Roadmap on Semiconductors) and the necessity of a post-CMOS era. Building on this, they know the structure and function of MOS-based memories (DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory and SRAM: Static Random Access Memory) and power devices (lateral power MOSFET, DMOS: Double Diffused Power MOSFET, IGBT: Insulated Gate Biplaor Transistor and Gate-Turn-Off-Thyristor).

General Conditions

Credit Points (LP) 6
Semester hours per week (SWS) 4   (exercise 2, lecture 2)
Cycle Summer semester
Language German
Estimation of workload Attendance time· 45 hours
Private study· 135 hours
Sum· 180 hours

Contact

This course is currently under revision

Classification in the curriculum

The lecture Semiconductor Technology: Process Technology (HLT I) belongs to the lectures

  • Semiconductor Technology: Epitaxy (HLT II) and
  • Semiconductor technology: Semiconductor production technology (HLT III)

to the semiconductor technology cycle of the IHT. The lecture is offered every second semester, always in the winter semester.

Recommended requirements

Knowledge is recommended, such as that provided in microelectronics (ME).

Contents

The following contents will be discussed:

  1. Introduction to silicon-based semiconductor technology,
  2. Technological basics (process parameters and basic technology processes),
  3. Substrate and wafer manufacturing (CZ wafers, FZ wafers and silicon-on-insulator wafers),
  4. Lithography (optical lithography and alternative methods) and structuring methods (wet-chemical, dry-chemical and physico-chemical),
  5. Doping methods: epitaxy, diffusion and ion implantation,
  6. Production and structuring of insulator layers (standard dielectrics, low-k, medium k and high-k dielectrics) and planarization methods,
  7. Production and structuring of metallic layers.
  8. At the end of the lecture, the assembly and connection technology will be discussed and exemplary manufacturing processes of different microelectronic components will be discussed.

Learning Goals

The students have an understanding of the importance of silicon-based semiconductor technology for the global electronics market, know and understand the technological basics of each semiconductor technology. In addition, they are familiar with state-of-the-art processes for substrate and wafer fabrication, for doping semiconductor layers and for structuring (lithography methods and wet and dry chemical etching) semiconductor, insulator and metal layers. They know the most important insulator materials and metallic materials of silicon-based semiconductor technology and gain a first insight into the assembly and interconnection technology for the production of complex electronic components. The students will be enabled to set up manufacturing processes for the manufacture of any semiconductor components and to analyse, explain and, if necessary, improve given manufacturing processes.

General Conditions

Credit Points (LP) 6
Semester hours per week (SWS) 4   (exercise 2, lecture 2)
Cycle Winter semester
Language German
Estimation of workload Attendance time· 45 hours
Private study· 135 hours
Sum· 180 hours

Contact

Classification in the curriculum

The lecture Semiconductor Technology: Epitaxy (HLT II) belongs to the lectures

  • Semiconductor Technology: Process Technology (HLT I) and
  • Semiconductor technology: Semiconductor production technology (HLT III)

to the semiconductor technology cycle of the IHT. The lecture is offered every second semester, always in the summer semester.

Recommended requirements

Knowledge is recommended, such as that provided in microelectronics (ME) and Semiconductor Technology: Process Technology (HLT I).

Contents

The following contents will be discussed:

  1. Epitaxial growth and heteroepitaxy,
  2. Atomic understanding of growth (adsorption, nucleation, step migration, desorption),
  3. Crystal lattice, dislocations, stacking errors, detection methods,
  4. Molecular beam epitaxy, subsystems and process flow,
  5. Doping strategies for nanometer structures,
  6. Surface segregation,
  7. Lattice mismatched interfaces, pseudomorphic growth, virtual substrates.

Learning Goals

The students have the knowledge for the production of epitaxial dopant structures by molecular beam epitaxy and are able to estimate the influence of process parameters on the production of epitaxial structures and heterostructures. In addition, they have basic knowledge of ultra-high vacuum technology and know and master layer analytical methods, such as

  • Profilometry,
  • 4-peak measurement,
  • Ellipsometry,
  • RAMAN spectroscopy,
  • Hall measurement and
  • Scanning electron microscopy

for the determination of layer thicknesses, stress states, dopant concentrations and dopant type.

General Conditions

Credit Points (LP) 6
Semester hours per week (SWS) 4   (exercise 2, lecture 2)
Cycle Summer semester
Language German
Estimation of workload Attendance time· 45 hours
Private study· 135 hours
Sum· 180 hours

Contact

 
Lecturer

Dr. Michael Oehme

Assistant

Daniel Schwarz, M.Sc.

Classification in the curriculum

The lecture Semiconductor Technology: Semiconductor Production Technology (HLT III) belongs to the lectures

  • Semiconductor Technology: Process Technology (HLT I) and
  • Semiconductor Technology: Epitaxy (HLT II)

to the semiconductor technology cycle of the IHT. The lecture is offered every fourth semester, always in the winter semester (odd starting years).

Recommended requirements

It is recommended to acquire knowledge such as in semiconductor engineering: bipolar technology (HL I), semiconductor engineering: nano-CMOS era (HL II) and semiconductor technology: process technology (HLT I).

Contents

The following contents will be discussed:

  1. Historical production models and basics of semiconductor manufacturing and production,
  2. Descriptive statistics, calculation of probabilities and predictive statistics,
  3. Defect density, yield and statistical yield models,
  4. Structure of clean rooms and clean rooms, organizational structure of a wafer factory, factory automation and SPC,
  5. "Computer Integrated Manufacturing" (CIM),
  6. Failure mechanisms in semiconductor devices and microelectronic chips,
  7. Quality and reliability of semiconductor devices

Learning Goals

The students have the knowledge and understanding of cost-effective production methods and concepts for the high-volume production of silicon-based semiconductor chips with high quality and reliability. They can define the terms yield, quality and reliability, know the relevant statistical yield models and can apply them, know the essential failure mechanisms in semiconductor devices and microelectronic chips and can describe them. In addition, they are familiar with basic processes in semiconductor production, know the structure of clean rooms and the method of Statistical Process Control (SPC) and can carry them out.

General Conditions

Credit Points (LP) 6
Semester hours per week (SWS) 4   (exercise 2, lecture 2)
Cycle every 2nd winter semester
Language German
Estimation of workload Attendance time· 45 hours
Private study· 135 hours
Sum· 180 hours

Contact

 
Lecturer

Prof. Dr. habil. Jörg Schulze

Assistant

Caterina Clausen, M.Sc.

 

Classification in the curriculum

The lecture Quantum Electronics: Tunnel and Quantum Well Devices (QE I) belongs to the lectures

  • Quantum Electronics: Selected Chapters of Higher Physics (QE Z) and
  • Quantum Electronics: Spintronics and Quantum Computation (QE II)

to the quantum electronics cycle of the IHT. The lecture is offered every second semester, always in the winter semester.

Recommended requirements

It is recommended that you have a good knowledge of microelectronics (ME), semiconductor engineering: bipolar technology (HL I), semiconductor engineering: nano-CMOS era (HL II), semiconductor technology: process technology (HLT I), semiconductor technology: epitaxy (HLT II) and quantum electronics: selected chapters of higher physics (QE Z).

Contents

The following contents will be discussed:

  1. Introduction to quantum physics, Schrödinger equation and potential problems,
  2. Properties of quantum wells, wires and dots,
  3. Electronic and mechanical properties of silicon-germanium heterostructures,
  4. Influence of the elastic tensions on the belt structure,
  5. Technological realization of potential barriers, quantum wells and quantum pots,
  6. Functionality of silicon-based hetero and quantum devices (Esaki tunnel field effect transistor, hetero field effect transistors, single electron transistor, MODFET: modulation doped field effect transistor or HEMT: high electron mobility transistor),
  7. LASER diodes (LASER: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) and VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting LASER).

Learning Goals

The students have the knowledge and understanding of quantum mechanical effects in classical semiconductor devices. In particular, they know the tunnel effect, can describe and model it, and know and understand quantum mechanical components that are specifically based on the tunnel effect. In addition, they have knowledge and understanding of the technological realization of potential barriers, quantum wells and quantum wells, and know and can describe devices based on these structures. They have the ability to design and dimension new tunnel components and quantum well-based components.

General Conditions

Credit Points (LP) 6
Semester hours per week (SWS) 4   (exercise 2, lecture 2)
Cycle Winter semester
Language German
Estimation of workload Attendance time· 45 hours
Private study· 135 hours
Sum· 180 hours

Contact

Lecturer

Prof. Dr. habil. Jörg Schulze

Assistant

David Weißhaupt, M.Sc.

Classification in the curriculum

The lecture Quantum Electronics: Spintronics and Quantum Computation (QE II) belongs to the lectures

  • Quantum electronics: tunnel and quantum well devices (QE I) and
  • Quantum Electronics: Selected Chapters of Higher Physics (QE Z)

to the quantum electronics cycle of the IHT. The lecture is offered every second semester, always in the summer semester.

Recommended requirements

It is recommended that you have a good knowledge of microelectronics (ME), semiconductor technology: bipolar technology (HL I), semiconductor technology: nano-CMOS era (HL II), semiconductor technology: process technology (HLT I), semiconductor technology: epitaxy (HLT II), quantum electronics: selected chapters of higher physics (QE Z) and quantum electronics: tunnel and quantum well devices (QE I).

Contents

The following contents will be discussed:

  1. Quantum mechanical description of spin and magnetism,
  2. Spintronic device concepts for memory applications: Electron transport in ferromagnets, use of magnetic effects "Giant Magneto-Resistance" (GMR) and "Tunneling Magneto-Resistance" (TMR) for electronic devices, magnetic random access memories (MRAMs), skyrmions, spintronic device concepts for logic applications: The Datta-Tas-Spin-Transistor, Spin-Injection and Spin-Detection, Spintronics and "Complementary Metal-Oxid-Semiconductor" (CMOS),
  3. New carbon-based materials and electronics: graphene, buckmister fullerenes and carbon nanotubes (CNT), ribbon structure of graphene and CNTs, graphene and CNT-based device concepts,
  4. "Quantum Computation" and the idea of the quantum computer: symmetric vs. asymmetric encryption, refraction of the RSA method (Shor algorithm), quantum computer.

Learning Goals

The students have the knowledge and understanding of the spin of electrons, know technological possibilities for spin manipulation, injection, extraction and detection and know and understand the structure and the principle of operation of quantum mechanical components based on ferromagnetic material properties. In addition, they have knowledge and understanding of the representation and processing of quantum bits (Q bits), the technological realization of Q bits, know the RSA encoding method (named after the developers Rivest, Shamir and Adleman), can apply it and know the Shor algorithm. (The Shor algorithm is an algorithm from the mathematical field of number theory, which uses means of quantum informatics. It calculates a non-trivial divider of a composite number and belongs to the class of factorization methods. Erw was published by Peter W. Shor in 1994.)

General Conditions

Credit Points (LP) 6
Semester hours per week (SWS) 4   (exercise 2, lecture 2)
Cycle Summer semester
Language German
Estimation of workload Attendance time· 45 hours
Private study· 135 hours
Sum· 180 hours

Contact

 

Classification in the curriculum

The lecture Quantum Electronics - Selected Chapters of Higher Physics (QE Z) forms together with the lectures:

  • Quantum Electronics - Tunneling and Quantum Well Devices (QE I) and
  • Quantum Electronics - Spintronics and Quantum Computation (QE II)

the quantum electronics cycle of the IHT. The lecture is offered every fourth semester, always in the winter semester (even years).

Recommended requirements

It is recommended that you have knowledge of microelectronics (ME), semiconductor technology: bipolar technology (HL I), semiconductor technology: nano-CMOS era (HL II) and quantum electronics: tunnel and quantum well devices (QE I).

Contents

The following contents will be discussed:

  1. The wave-particle dualism of light,
  2. The discovery of the electron,
  3. Atom models and the discovery of crystal structures,
  4. Planck's radiation law and Einstein's photon hypothesis,
  5. Einstein and the laser,
  6. The wave-particle dualism as a basic principle of nature,
  7. Schrödinger's equation and the formulation of wave mechanics,
  8. Selected potential problems and the tunnel effect,
  9. The concept of the electronic band structure of a solid and the Kronig Penney model.

Learning Goals

The students have the knowledge and understanding of wave-particle duality as a fundamental principle of nature and know the essential observations and physical experiments that led to the realization of this fundamental principle. They are able to derive, interpret and solve the Schrödinger equation for selected problems. They also have the knowledge and understanding of the crystal and electronic band structure of solids and are thus able to derive the electronic properties of solids and explain electronic effects such as the tunnel effect or the stimulated emission of light from semiconductors.

General Conditions

Credit Points (LP) 6
Semester hours per week (SWS) 4   (exercise 2, lecture 2)
Cycle Every 2nd winter semester
Language German
Estimation of workload Attendance time· 45 hours
Private study· 135 hours
Sum· 180 hours

Contact

Lecturer

Prof. Dr. habil. Jörg Schulze

Assistant

Caterina Clausen, M.Sc.

 

Contact

Jörg Schulze
Prof. Dr. habil.

Jörg Schulze

Head of Institute

Cinja Schwiedel
 

Cinja Schwiedel

Assistant to the institute´s management

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